Early returns Tuesday showed Wilson winning about 54 percent of the vote against state Rep. Alisha Thomas Morgan with 99 percent of precincts reporting.
Wilson was chair of the City of Decatur's School Board from 2005 to 2011. She previously worked as president of the Georgia School Boards Association.
She will face one of two Republicans, Michael Buck or Richard Woods, in November's general election. The GOP primary runoff was very close Tuesday night.
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